ENGLISH GRAND LODGE HISTORY
9. When and where was the first Grand Lodge established?

On June 24, 1717, in London

10. How was it formed?

By action of four existing Lodges that were accustomed to meeting at the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house in St. Paul's Church-yard; Crown Ale-house in Parker's Lane near Drury's Lane; Apple Tree Tavern in Charles Street, Covent Garden; and Rummer and Grapes Tavern in Channel Row, Westminster.

11. When were other early Grand Lodges formed?

Grand Lodge of Ireland, 1725; Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, 1731; Provincial Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1733; Grand Lodge of Scotland, 1736, in addition to several formed in England, which were of short duration.

12. What other Grand Lodge was organized in England in 1751?

Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of England, according to the Old Constitutions, also known as the "Antients."

13. What names were given to these two groups?

The members of the Grand Lodge of 1751 referred to themselves as "Antient Masons." The members of the Grand Lodge of 1717 were known as "Modern Masons."

14. What was the principle difference between them?

A difference in the Ritual, having to do particularly with the Third Degree.

15. How was their rivalry ended?

By their merger in 1813 to form The United Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of England.

16. Who were the leaders in the union of 1813?

The Duke of Sussex and the Duke of Kent (sons of King George III,) the Grand Masters of the Moderns and the Antients, respectively.

17. Is the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house still standing?

It was torn down in 1894.

18. What Lodges of the 1717 Grand Lodge of England are in existence?

The Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron, now called Antiquity No. 2; the Lodge at the Rummer and Grapes, now called Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge No. 4; the Lodge at the Apple Tree Tavern now called Lodge of Fortitude and Old Cumberland No. 12.

19. Why were the Antients sometimes called Atholl Masons?

This was due to the fact that the Dukes of Atholl presided over them as Grand Masters.

20. What effect did the existence of two competing Grand Lodges in England have upon Freemasonry in the United States?

Inasmuch as numerous Lodges had been constituted in America by the Moderns, while others had come into existence under Antient auspices, quite naturally much of the Ritualistic difference (and also the intense rivalry) occurred here. This was complicated somewhat by the fact that there were also Lodges in America of Irish and Scottish origins. The settlement of differences in England in 1813 was followed by similar action in America within a few years.

21. Does the answer to the previous question apply to Pennsylvania?

Not entirely; because few of the Modern Lodges survived the Revolutionary War and consequently, Pennsylvania Masonry is substantially Antient subsequent to 1785.

22. What was the original printed code of laws in English Masonry?

The Constitutions of 1723 compiled by James Anderson. This was followed by a revised edition in 1738.

23. What is the Ahiman Rezon?

Originally it was the Constitution of the Antient Grand Lodge as compiled by Laurence Dermott, Grand Secretary. The name is Hebraic in origin, but has no true and concise English equivalent. "A Help to a Brother" is one of many suggested translations. The Ahiman Rezon is the book of Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
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